The 22 hectares of the Old City is the oldest part of Baku. It’s surrounded by fortress walls. Archeological excavations have revealed lower layers dating from the 8th -13th centuries, the remains of man fires, pits, wells and jugs, as well as different cookery and decorative items. The upper layer of the Old City dates from the 14th to 17th centuries and has settlements and wells. In the 12th century the Old City became the centre of Baku and fortress walls were built around the city. The first settlements, according to archeological research, were built in the 7th century. The reason why the Old City is so popular with tourists is that it an the example of the art of city building. Constructions such as Siniqqala (1078), the Maiden’s Tower (12th century) and the Shirvanshahs’ Palace Complex, built in the 15th century, give the city a medieval aspect and later caravanserai (17th century), mosques, baths and market squares were built. Every tourist in the Old City feels that he or she is in a city of the Middle Ages and enjoys its beauty. This comlex has been included in UNESCO’s Cultural Heritage List and is preserved as an historical monument of international importance.